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IBPS (IT Officer) Syllabus and Study Material

Hi friends, there are few days left for IBPS Specialist Officer exam for year 2017. At this stage, all aspirants want to make sure they are not leaving any topic uncovered for IBPS IT officer position. Please refer the link for the syllabus of Specialist Officer exam of IBPS.

Topics for IBPS IT Officer

While preparing for IT officer post of IBPS exam, aspirants are bit confused about how to cover all topics and pass the exam with good scores. So, here I’ll be sharing study material with a questionnaire set to practice for the exam. I am sharing one chapter/lesson of IT officer syllabus each day, IBPS/Any bank IT officer aspirants can go through these chapters. This way, you guys can track the record of your progress as well as can increase the chances of your selection by daily practicing on the questionnaire.

I’ll also share the last 5 years question papers in my next post. Please stay tuned. Also, please share your comments below if you feel I am missing any IT topic in my post 🙂

Download Admit card of IBPS SO exam

Topics to be covered:

Chapter 1: Malwares and Virus Types

Chapter 2 : Computer Networks and topologies

Chapter 3 : Different Standards – IEEE, ISO

Chapter 4 : Computer Network and architecture

Chapter 5: SQL Basics

Chapter 6: Operating System

Chapter: DBMS Concepts

SAS Basics : Learn Creating SAS Dataset

Hi all, I  know I am bit late actually very late in posting this blog post. So, we will be learning SAS today and I am covering some basics of SAS.

So, in order to learn it first there are multiple things that we will cover. What is SAS and why it is used.

SAS is a statistical and business analytics package tool that help you derive insights from the data and visualize the output to client. Yeah too much in a statement…?? 😉 No problem we’ll understand all of these things here.

Firstly, let’s check what makes SAS and what are the primary components of it:

Primary components of SAS:

1. SAS Library – This is just a SAS folder where in you will be keeping all your sas dataset or the files you would like your system to be read

2. SAS Editor Section – Here you will be writing your SAS code. SAS coding is more SQL like. If you want to learn SQL also, check my article: Learn Basics of SQL

3. SAS log section – This SAS component will give you all the information regarding the changes your code have made or the information from your imported SAS dataset. For example, the count of observations and rows, the data type of these fields and length. This component is very important to check any issues related to data type issue while performing data merging or transfer from SAS ton Teradata.

4. SAS debug section – This section enables the SAS developer to do any sort of debugging over the issue. There are various options available that lets you check the issue by filtering and sorting record.

How to Create SAS Library :

– This is the very first step that you will be doing in SAS Enterprise Guide or SAS Basic. There is a default SAS Library called – “WORK” library. This keeps all the temporary data. So, there are two types of libraries:

2. User Defined Library

Work – Keeps all temporary data of that particular SAS session only. Once the system is log off, all the data is erased. So, better you save it in some user defined library by before loosing it…LOL

User Defined Library – You can create library by following the syntax given as following:

Libname [Your Library Name] “Location where you want to save your files or SAS Dataset”

example: Libname AA “C://User/John/Documents/New Datasets/”

This will save all the SAS dataset in New Datasets folder.

Now Learn the three major components of SAS Code:

Steps of SAS:

1. Data Step
2. Proc Step
3. Run Step

So, for today this is all folks to be learnt in basics of SAS :p

If you want to learn more about it, let me know in comments. Thanks 🙂

Struggles of a Teenager : How to deal with Teenage life

Amigo Friends… 🙂 Today I am writing something that I, you or all the other teenagers in the world have felt. Teenage is a phase that starts with all the fuzz and confusion.  Sometimes, you may feel the happiest girl of the world, or the saddest on the other. So, how to deal with teenage problems. I’ll tell you all this in this article… Naah.. a single article is too short to write it.. believe me :p

  1. Stay Calm and practice meditation

I know this is tough.. you must be feeling agitated and feel that you are old enough to understand what is right or wrong for you. And you’ll be constantly reminded of this thought by your parents that you are not. LOLSo, why not let this just go because this conversation is going to be never ending and you’ll loose temper. Better start practicing how to be calm. And, I would suggest just meditate 5 minute daily boys and girls and it will be all fine. Meditation does power to your self-esteem, makes you calm and self contented.

2. Explore Yourself : May be a new Hobby

Explore yourself, your liking, your interest area and you will be surprised at the findings. We human beings in this modern era are so mixed up with our mobile phones and social media platform that we fail to realize our own hidden talent. Exploring a new hobby/passion will boost your confidence and you may never know what future is keeping you for you with that new explored passion :p

3. Communicate with your parents

Teenage is a very confusing phase my friends.  There are lot of changes you are going through physically, mentally as well as behaviorally. Your thought process will change. The only key to avoid any confusion regarding your problems – physical changes or a new boyfriend/girlfriend aham..aham… is talk with your parents. Just talk talk and talk before jumping onto any conclusions.

We make some false assumptions or depend on the false claim of different cosmetic products and start using it without even knowing the consequences. So, before trusting other products trust somebody who loves you, care for you and always there for you

4.Start your teenage Journal

This is a super useful technique that makes your calm, lets you see your vision, realize your mistake or may even calm your anger. Start a teenage journal of yours, your feelings of every kind whatever you felt that day or the moment rather than acting wrong, just write it down. After few days, when you’ll read it again you may notice that this was not such a difficult task.

5. Be Mindful of your thoughts, feelings and actions

Exercise, meditate, be mindful of your thought process and actions. Check what you want to be in future. Because teenage is the phase when you take the most crucial decisions of your life. Plan accordingly, prepare well and then only you’ll succeed.

6. Make some good friends

Good friends are a gift provided by God to you. You’ll get plenty of people who will come and go. You’ll help them or they may at certain point of time and then hurt you and will disappear for forever. But there are some people who will appreciate your good things, they will stand by you in your bad times. They will stop you from doing any wrong thing. Your task is to find these good set of people who will inspire and encourage you for your goodwill. Hehe I know it’s tough but such is life bro… 😀

7. Take it easy, it’s all natural at the end

At the end, If you are still worried about the changes going in you, or saying I am not beautiful/Handsome… I’ll just say wait and this will all pass soon. Everyone is different and beautiful in its own way. You just need to invoke that good side of yours. Just sit, relax and say to yourself… I am not gonna afraid of you changes. You are temporary and will soon pass.

Lastly Exercise, Spread Love and Live Live Happily 🙂

User Defined Functions in SQL : Scalar, Inline Table-Valued, Multi Statement

Hola Friends! Today we will learn about various user defined functions present in SQL. So far, we have studied lots of system functions : IsDate, Rand(), round() etc. To gather more information about these system functions, please refer my post Mathematical functions in SQL and Date time functions in SQL.

SQL provides us a feature of programmability wherein it provides system functions as well as lets user create functions of three types:

  1. Scalar functions
  2. InLine Table Valued functions
  3. Multi Statement table valued functions

Each type of sql function is of different use and one should have a proper understanding of all these function types.

If you are new to SQL, please check SQL basics and SQL mathematical


Intelenet Global Services Analyst Interview Experience

Hola friends, I know this post is very late. Sorry for this. Check out my blog for real interview experiences of different companies. So, today I have brought to you the Intelenet Global Services Analyst Interview Experience.

Intelenet Global Services Data Analyst

Data Analyst position in Intelenet Global Services:

The position was Data Analyst which has been counted as the sub-portion of the sexist job of 21st century. Data analyst work involves collecting, cleaning, transforming and analyzing data.

Job Description:

The job description for this post in Intelenet Global Services included Python, R or SAS, knowledge about statistics….yeah the core things of data science. It also needs you to have knowledge about some BI tool like Tableau. It would be desirable for you 😉

How does Intelenet Global Services Recruits:

So, the recruitment process in Intelenet Global can start either with a consultancy, employee referral or through their company database, if your resume is that smart 😉

My friend got a call from a consultancy and the consultant explained about the job description in Intelenet Global Services. Intelenet is a business process outsourcing companies offering services in multiple sectors and this profile was Data Analyst. The position was for UK shift and cabs facility is not provided with it… Huh.. :/ When I heard this, it was bit upsetting for me and friend.

So, my friend agreed on the terms specified by the consultant and the job consultant agreed upon a date for interview.

The Interview Day:

My friend went to the Gurgaon Intelenet Global Services office. He found the office entrance bit sad.. but then the internal bay system and people were good there. The first round was with a BI specialist and she was very friendly in nature. It was more of a HR kind of interview with some basic questions like:

-Tell me about yourself

– Your Current Role

-The complex project you have done so far and your responsibilities in it

– What kind of tools you use

-Your reason of Job Change

-Why Intelenet Global Services

-Any BI tool experience (by the way they use Tableau in most of the cases for reporting purpose – specific to Gurgaon location office). So if you know any BI tool that will be an advantage for you 😀.

Then she will explain what all tools they use and what the role is all about.

If the HR finds your candidature as relevant, she may call you for a coding round…

The Second Round of Interview

The second round of interview was a coding round and the questions were related to Advance Python concept. It wasn’t a pen paper based test. -So, if you are someone who only knows how to read a simple csv file as a dataframe, then this profile might not for you.

-If you are someone who knows has worked with a single data type inside a dataframe column, then this place is might not for you..

Guys you need to be very good in Python concepts if you want to clear their coding round.

Also, some basic knowledge of SQL is required to master the test. Don’t know anything about SQL?.. Aah.. don’t worry.. check my post on SQL Basics and Advance SQL functions to master data management. Any feedback is welcomed 🤗

Here are some hints for this coding round:

1. Try to master how to read multiple files at the same time and append it to each other. Like reading all excel or csv files from a directory and then appending it to another file

2. Extracting elements from a nested list. Writing a generic function to extract nested list items and checking prime/even-odd and splitting the data into new two list based upon the function.

3. Handling dataframe with columns handling different data type separated by different delimiters… My friend was totally blown away with this question 😉

4. The fourth and last question was based on your knowledge of dictionary and lists. Writing a function that compares key values of a dictionary in a list and then deleting key values from list.

So, guys master you Python basic and advance skills before appearing for Intelenet Global Services.

The sad part was the consultant informed him that this positions is for statistical analysis, clustering, classification etc… However there wasn’t any question related to these topics. But, this doesn’t mean that these topics will not be asked in further interview rounds. Since my friends was asked to leave for the day… Aah.. I hate this line.

All the best guys if you are going to appear for the data analyst profile. I hope this post will help you 🙂 Let me know if you have some other questions here… I am here to help you..

Thank you

Your Mystery Solver 😉



Mathematical Functions in SQL: ABS, Round, Trunc, Power Function

Hi friends, If you are on this page and learning mathematical functions of SQL I believe you have visited my previous post Basics of SQL. If not, do it right now to enhance your knowledge.

There are various mathematical functions available in SQL. Some of these are given below:

  1. ABS

This mathematical function always returns a positive value.

e.g. Select ABS(-50) returns 50

2. Ceiling

This function gives the upper value of the input integer.

e.g. Select Ceiling(14.25) -> returns 15

Select (-14.25) -> returns -14

3. Floor

Floor is mathematical function which gives the nearest lowest value of the supplied input integer.

e.g. Select Floor(14.25) -> returns 14

Select Floor(-14.25) -> returns -15

4. Power

Power is mathematical function which takes integer input and returns the power of base number.

Syntax : Power(base number, power number)

e.g. Select power(3, 2) -> returns 9


SQRT function returns the square root value of the input integer.

e.g. Select SQRT(81) -> returns 9


SQUARE function returns the square value as expected from its name :p

e.g. Select SQUARE(3) -> returns 9

7. Rand()

Rand is a mathematical function which returns a random value but if you will use it in the following way: Select rand(2), then it will always return the same value.

How to generate a random value between 1 to 100?

Use floor function with rand(), this way you will be able to generate a different value each time:

Select Floor(rand()*200)

This function will return some random value between 1 and 200.

Or simply use rand()*some_integer_value

8. Round()

The round function is very useful and it rounds the supplied input value to the specified integer.

Syntax: Select Round(number_to_roundoff, int_value_to_specify_round_limit, specify 1 if value needs to be truncated)

e.g. Select round(23.456, 2, 0) – > Rounds the value up to two decimal places: 23.460

Select round(23.456, 2,1) -> Truncate the value up to two decimal places. The output will be 23.450

The round() function also takes negative value to specify the round off/trunc direction to apply. A negative value indicates the truncation/round to apply to the left.

e.g. Select round(230.456, -2) -> rounds the two integer values to the left of decimal value. Thus this function returns 200.00 as an output

Want More on Round function?

Select round(250.456, -2) -> is rounded to 300.00

Select round(250.456, -2, 1) -> value is truncated to the 2 places left to the decimal value and the output will be 200.00

Select round(256.456, -1) -> returns 260.00

Select round(256.456, -1, 1) – > returns 250.00

Hope this clarifies all the confusion about mathematical functions. Want to learn about stored procedures in SQL? Check out my post What are stored procedures and benefits of using Stored procedures.

Till that time c yaa friends 🙂 Comment on this post if you like it because this will keep me going to share good stuff with you. happy learning 🙂

Date Time Functions in SQL and the Use of Date Time Functions

Date Time functions in SQL

There are various Date time functions available in SQL which allow us to create trigger based on it. Date time function allow us to check whether an input string is a date or not. Also, we can check what’s the day or week number on a specific date using date time function.

Date Time

Let’s check various date time function available with us:

  1. IsDate

The isDate function is used to check whether the input string is a date or not.

Command: Select isDate(“2012-05-30”), it will return 1

If the input string is not a date, the IsDate date time function will return zero.

The isDate function works well on date, time and datetime datatype but not with datetime2 (timestamp with nanoseconds)

2. Day()

This date time function returns the “day number” of the specified input date string.

Command: Select Day(“2012-02-30 02:35:35”) – Returns 30

3. Month()

This sql date time function returns the “month number” of the specified input date string.

Command: Select Month(“2012-02-30 02:35:35”) – Returns 2

4. Day()

This sql date time function returns the “day number” of the specified input date string.

Command: Select Day(“2012-02-30 02:35:35”) – Returns 30

5. DateName()

The DateName() date time function returns a string value while other date time functions return integer value.

There are various attributes that can be used with the DateName() function. let’s me share some examples of it here:

  1. DateTime(Day, “Date value”|”DateTime Value”) – This function returns the day value (exception it is integer)

Command: Select DateTime(Day, “2013-05-23”) – the output will be 2

2. DateTime(WeekDay, “Date value”|”DateTime Value” – This function returns the week day value

Command: Select DateTime(WeekDay, “2013-05-23”) – the output will be Saturday.

3. DateTime(Month, “Date value”|”DateTime Value”)  – It returns the month value as a string

Command: Select DateTime(Month, “2013-05-23”) – the output will be May.

6. Datepart()

The DatePart() function works similar way as DateName function to find out the weekDay. the only difference between DatePart() and DateName() function is Datepart() returns an integer.

e.g. Select DatePart(WeekDay, “2013-05-25”) will return 2 if it is Tuesday

7. DateAdd()

This sql function will add day, month or year according to the specified value.

Command: Select DateAdd(Day|Month|Year, integer value of addition, Date Value)

e.g. Select DateAdd(Day, 10, “2013-05-20”) – This will output “2013-05-30”

Date Diff

8. DateDiff()

This sql function will add day, month or year according to the specified value.

Command: Select DateDiff(Day|Month|Year, Date value 1,Date value 2)

e.g. Select DateAdd(Month, “2013-05-20″,”2013-01-20”) – This will output 4

Cast and Convert Functions in SQL

Cast and convert functions allow you to convert one data type into another.

Syntax of Cast function:

Select cast(Column_name as Data type)

e.g. Select cast(date as nvarchar)

Syntax of Convert function:

Convert function lets you choose style parameter for string values only. The style feature is not available in cast function. By styling I mean a user defined format in which the output is required.

e.g. Select convert(data type, column_name, style)

There are some specific style codes like 103 means : dd/mm/yyyy. Thus the following example:

Select convert(nvarchar, DateOfBirth, 103)

Stored Procedures and String Functions in SQL

Hola friends, let’s understand what are stored procedures and the benefits of using it. I hope you have learnt some basics of SQL before this. Learn basics of SQL in my previous post.

What are Stored Procedures?

Stored procedures are a set of instructions that need to be instructed again and again. In SQL we can save this frequent instructions as a procedure and call them by just their name.


Stored Procedures

How to create Stored Procedures?

To create stored procedures, simply use the Create Proc/Procedure Procedure_name command.

We can also pass parameter in a stored procedure. The parameters can be of two type:

1. Input (Used to take input)

2. Output (used to print output) – The output keyword must be specified as output in the description.

One example of the stored procedure is shown in the below image:



Running the Stored Procedures:

The command used to execute a stored procedure is: EXEC|Execute Procedure_name

e.g. Exec HumanResouces.uspFindEmployee “123” (Here 123 is the value for the @BusinessEntityID input parameter.

Stored Procedure with Output Parameter

An example of output parameter is:

Create Proc spGetEmployeeCount

@LastName int

@EmployeeCount Output



Select @EmployeeCount =Count(*) from emp where LastName = @LastName


Executing Stored Procedure with Output Parameter:

To execute the stored procedures with output parameters, it is very important to declare the output variable first. To declare the output variable, use the following command:

Declare @OutputVariableName Datatype

Exec Storedprocedurename Input parameter, Output Parameter Out|Output



Declare @TotalCount Int

Exec spGetEmployeeCount @LastName = “Male”, @TotalCount Out


Benefits of Stored procedures:

  1. The execution plan can be reused

When a normal statement is executed, the path like first few columns are selected, then refined through where clause and then ordered. This is called a kind of execution plan. So, we can save time through stored procedures.

e.g. Select name, gender from Emp

when id IN(12, 14, 15)

order by name

A normal statement if executed with different parameters, use different execution path. However Stored procedures uses the same execution path even with different variable values.

2. Reduced Network Traffic

Since Stored procedures allows code re-usability, the sql instructions takes less time and space while utilizing network bandwidth. Thus network traffic is reduced.

3. Easy Maintainability using Stored Procedures

Maintenance becomes easy. A change in stored procedure is easy rather than finding similar statements at various places and then modifying the code.

4. Code Re-usability

The instruction that will be required again and again need not to be typed again. We just have to create a stored procedure with that statement and this will help us in reusing the code in less time and space.

5. Better Security

The database can be huge and we don’t want everyone to give access to every user in the network. So, build procedures on the specific table to which the user wants access. This way we will be able to provide better security.

6. Avoid SQL Injection Attack

Stored procedures also helps in avoiding SQL injection attacks. To know more about SQL injection attacks, go to the link.

Learn basics of SQL here

String Functions in SQL

  1. Left function:

This string function in sql returns integer values from the left.

command: select left(string, integer count)

e.g. Select left(“abcd”, 3) – Result will be “abc”

2. Right Function

This string function in sql returns integer values from the right of a string/column value.

command: select left(string/column, integer count)

e.g. Select left(“abcd”, 3) – Result will be “bcd”

3. CharIndex

This sql function returns the index of the character value.

command: Select charindex(“a”, “abcd”) – answer would be 1

4. Len

This function the total length of a string or column value of string type.

command e.g. : Select len(“abcd”) – answer would be 4

Note: This sql string function will not count the blank values at the end of a string.

5. Substr

This sql function is used to select a substring value from a string.

Command: select substr(“string value”|column name, position to start, length of fetch character

e.g. Select substr(“abcd”, 1, 3) – answer would be “abc”

We can also choose negative indexing here. A -1 indicates from the right.

6. Replicate

Replicate function replicates a specific string to the specified number of times.

command: Select replicate(“string”, number of times to replicate)

e.g. Select lastname + replicate(“*”,5)

This command will repeat the * five times in lastname. Let’s say the lastname is “John” then the output is: “John*****”

6. Space

This sql function will insert space to the specified number of times between column values.

command: Select Lastname + Space(5) +First name – This command will introduce a 5 character space between first name column value and last name.

7. PatIndex (or Pattern Index)

PatIndex works the same way as charindex by telling the first occurrence. However, PatIndex allows you to use wildcard. You can’t use wildcard with CharIndex.

e.g. Select PatIndex(“aaab”, “abcaaababc”) – The answer would be 4

If it do not find any matched string, the sql string function returns zero.

8. Replace

This string function replaces a string into another one.

Command: Select(String, “value to replace”, replacement value”)

e.g. Select(“”, “.com”, “.net”) – The result will be “”


This string function is used to trim leading blanks from the beginning.

Command e.g. : Select LTRIM(LastName)

10. RTRIM:

This sql function trims the trailing blank values.

e.g. Last Name : “abcd  ”

Select RTRIM(LastName) – the result will be “abcd”

11. ASCII:

This SQL function returns the ASCII code of the string value.

Command: Select ASCII(string value)

e.g. Select ASCII(A) – The answer would be 65

12. CHAR

This SQL function returns the character value from the integer ASCII code.

Command: Select CHAR(Integer value)

e.g. Select CHAR(65) – The answer would be A


This sql function replaces a specific string value at the specified position by replacing the characters up to length value. It is kind of masking.

Command: Select STUFF(Column, Starting position, length, String to be used as replacement)

e.g. Select STUFF(LastName, 1, 3, “**”)

If the last name is “JohnMarcel”, the output of stuff function will be “***nMarcel”

SQL Basics and Queries : SQL Tutorials

What is a Database?

Database is an organized collection of related information. In daily world we deal with lots of data. In this internet technology more and more data is getting produced these days. We have multiple database management systems available with us to manage, store and update this enormous data in convenient way. e.g. Oracle, Sybase, Microsoft SQL server management studio etc.



DBMS (Database management server) is a collection of software tools used to manage, update, retrieve the data from the database. SQL (Structured query language is used to connect the DBMS with the database.


All queries have been executed on the Microsoft SQL Server management Studio version 17.0. SSMS is a client tool and not the server. It is rather used as a tool to connect to the database server.

Settings: Local Host

Connect: Database Engine

Use SQL authentication username and password

SQL Databases:

In Microsoft SQL Server Management Studio you will find two types of databases:

  1. System Database
  2. User created Database

-System database can’t be deleted

SQL Command Types:
  1. DDL (Data Definition language) – Used to define/create database object
  2. DML (Data manipulation language) – Used to insert values, update and delete values from the database object created by DDL commands.
  3. TCL (Transaction Control language) – Used to control transactions through Commit and Rollback commands

SQL DDL Commands – data definition language (Create, Alter and Drop commands)

1. Creating a database:

Database can be created either using GUI or through SQL query in SSMS.

Create statement is used for this purpose: Create [Database Object] [Database Object name]

Ex. Create Database db1 (this statement will create a database with name db1)

Whenever we create a database, two types of files are created with it: 1. .MDF file (contains actual data) 2. .LDF file (contains log file)

2. Modify a Database:

Alter statement is used to alter a sql database object.

Alter Command:  Alter [Database Object] [Database Object name] Modify Col1 = Value

E.g. Alter Database db1 Modify Name = db2 (this will change the name of the database)

Renaming through stored procedure: sp_renameDB [Old database name] [New database name]

e.g. sp_renameDB db1 db2

3. Dropping a Database:

Drop statement is used to delete a database completely from the system(.mdf and .ldf files are also deleted with it)

Drop command: Drop [Database Object] [Database Object name]

e.g. Drop Database db1 (this will delete database db1)

Note- If a database is getting used by any other user, make sure that database is not getting used by any other database. Else an error will be generated

Resolve this single user thing, use this command:

Alter Database db1 set Single_USER with Rollback immediate

(Rollback immediate, rollback any commands and delete the database immediately)

SQL DML Queries : Insert, Update, delete

1. Create a Table:

Command: Create Table [table name] ([column name] [data type of column] [constraint])

e.g. Create table t1(ID int NOT NULL Primary Key, Gender nvarchar(20) NOT NULL)

This command will create a table with name t1 and 2 columns ID and Gender of INT and nvarchar datatypes respectively. nvarchar is a UNICODE data type and store 2 bytes per characters, while varchar stores 1 byte per character.

In order to store the table in a particular database use the following command:

Use [database name]


Create table command….

Primary Key – Can’t be null and must be unique. It uniquely identify each row in the table

Foreign key– It can contain null values and it references primary key present in some other values (basically the column in which it looks for a value). Foreign key is used to establish relationship between two tables. It is used to enforce database integrity.

Create a Foreign key relation –

Alter table [table name] add constraint [constrain name] foreign key(foreign key column name) references [PrimaryColumn Table Name] (primary key column)

e.g. Alter table tb1 add constraint tb1_genderid foreign key(tb1) references tb(id)

Note- Constraint name should make sense like tablename_columnName

2. Select all values of a table:

Command: Select * from [table name]

To select all tables of a database choose:

Select * from dual (dual refers data dictionary)

3. Insert values in a table :

Insert command is used to insert values in a table: Insert into [table name] (col 1, col 2, …) Values(col 1 value, col 2 value,…)

e.g. Insert into a1(id, name, gender) values(11, “ss”, “male”)

4. Adding a Default value in a column:

We can assign default values to a column rather than assigning Null values:

Alter table [table_name] add constraint constraint_name Default [default value] For [column name]

e.g. Alter table tb1 add constraint tb1_gender default 2 for gender

This command will assign default value 2 to column gender if value not explicitly defined.

5. Adding a New column into table:

Command: Alter table [table name] add [column name] [column data type] [NULL|NOT NULL] add constraint [constraint name] Constraint

Alter table tb1 add Address nvarchar Not Null add constraint tb1_address default ‘xyz’

This command will add one column Address to the table tb1 that don’t accept null value. Also, default value of ‘xyz’ will be assigned to it.

6. Dropping a Constraint:

Command: Alter table [table name] Drop Constraint [constraint name]

e.g. Alter table tb1 drop constraint tb1_gender

This will drop the constraint.

7. Delete a Table record:

To delete a table record, we use delete command:

Delete from [table name] where column1=”column value”

Note: Where clause is used to put some condition on search selection

However, you can’t delete a table record if the table is getting used by some other user. There are some cascading referential integrity constraint imposed on foreign key constraints.

8. Cascade Referential Integrity Constraint:

We can choose options if a foreign key constraint reference is getting deleted. Four options are there:

  1. No Action : This will simply generate an error if a record from primary key table is deleted that has some value in foreign key table.
  2. Cascade: This option will delete all the foreign key records that are related to primary key will be deleted
  3. Set NULL: This option will set the foreign key dependent value to Null.
  4. Set Default: This option will set the foreign key dependent value to default values provided to the column.

9. Adding a Check Constraint:

This constraint is used to enforce value checks on column. For e.g. The value in the age column>4

Command: Alter table [table name] add constraint [constraint name] check (boolean expression)

e.g. Alter table tb1 add constraint tb1_age_check check(AGE>0 AND AGE<30)

This command will only let you add age between 0 and 30 in the Age column.

Note: The check constraint returns a Boolean value based on which the value is entered in the table. It also let you insert Null values because for Null values, check constraint returns “Unknown”.

10. Identity Column:

It is a column property in SSMS.

Identity column is a column to which values are automatically assigned.

Identity Seed: A value with which the identity column value starts

Identity Increment: The value with which identity column value is incremented.

Command: Create table stu(id int identity(1,1) Primary key)

This command will create a stu table having id as a identity column. The id column here will start from 1 and incremented by 1.


10. Setting up External Values/Explicit Value to Identity Column:

To set up external value in Identity column, add the following command before inserting values in table:

Command: Set IDENTITY_INSERT [table name] ON

Insert into table name(column list) values(1,”23″..etc)

11. Setting Off External Values/Explicit Value to Identity Column:

Command: Set IDENTITY_INSERT [table name] OFF

Insert into table name(column list) values(1,”23″..etc)

Note: To reset the identity column value, use DBCC command.

12. Unique Key Constraint:

Unique key constraint is used to enforce unique values in database. There is a slight difference between primary key and unique key.

Primary key values = Unique+Not Null

Unique constraint value = Unique + values can be null

Command: Alter table table_name add constraint constraint_name unique(column name)


Create table Stu(Name varchar(20) Unique)

13. Applying a Trigger:

Firstly let’s try to understand what a trigger is. A trigger is an sql instruction/set of instructions that will will cause an action once a specific condition occurs. For example: Inserting another row table 2 when a row is entered in the table 1.


Create Trigger [trigger_name] on [table_name] for Insert/Update/Delete/Condition





14. Selecting values from table:

Select is a command used to retrieve records from a table.

  1. To fetch all records from a table:

Command: Select * from [table_name]

e.g. Select * from emp

2. Select specific columns from a table:

Command: Select [col_name_1], [col_name_2]… from [table_name]

e.g. Select name, age, id from Employee

3. Fetch all distinct records from a table:

Command: Select distinct [column_name] from [table_name]

e.g. Select distinct name from Employee

This command will help in fetching the distinct records from table Employee by Name column.

4. Fetch record matching a specific condition:

Where is used to apply a specific condition in the SQL command.

Command: Select * from table_name where column_name = condition value

e.g. Select name, id from employee where name=”John”

This command will fetch all the records from the table with name column value as john.

5. Fetch record not matching a specific condition (column value):

Command: Select * from table_name where col_name <> Column value

“<>” signifies as not equal to here. We can also use “!=” to compare values.

6. OR operator in SQL:

OR operator is used to specify two or more conditions together.

Command: Select * from table_name where col1=value OR col2=value

e.g. Select name, age, salary from Employee where name=”John” OR name=”Nick”

This sql command will fetch all the table records where name is either John or Nick

7. AND Operator in SQL:

AND operator is used to specify two and more conditions together.

Command: Select * from table_name where col1=value AND col2=value

e.g. Select name, age, salary from Employee where name=”John” AND age=”30″

This sql command will fetch all the table records where name is John and age is Nick

8. IN Operator in SQL:

IN operator is used to retrieve records where condition matches more than 1 value. (And you don’t want to use OR multiple times in a sql command)

Command: Select * from table_name where col_name IN(value1, value2, value3…)

e.g. Select * from Employee where age(21, 25, 30)

This command will fetch all the table record where age is either 21 or 25 or 30.

SQL Wildcards

SQL supports various kind of wild card characters to facilitate data retrieval in multiple ways. Please refer the image for all sql wild card characters.